Adequate protection against ambient light reduces by half the generation of peroxide in the parenteral nutrition [ 43 , 51 , 52 ]. However, further studies are needed to validate the benefit of such enrichment of milk formulas and possibly of human milk in order to improve antioxidant defense especially in preterm newborns. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia. Discussion The principal outcome of the majority if not all assessed articles was to document the presence or not of oxidative stress in the neonatal population, which is not the purpose of the present article. Total antioxidant activity; TAC:
The high significance between studies cited here on the difference between sexes suggests a different capacity of newborns to cope with an oxidative environment depending of their sex. These peroxides are strongly suspected to be at the origin of several diseases observed in this population. Adequate protection against ambient light reduces by half the generation of peroxide in the parenteral nutrition [ 43 , 51 , 52 ]. For instance, the World Health Organization reported that, in , the prevalence rate was of 48 vs. Ferric reducing ability of plasma; GPx: This study revealed that the equilibrium between peroxides and glutathione differed between sexes. Estrogen receptors have been shown to directly induce genes associated to cellular responses to oxidative stress, such as glutathione peroxidase, in foetal and adult tissues, strongly supporting a role of estrogen in the protection against oxidative stress [ 58 , 59 , 60 ]. Certainly, one way to be favoured in the application of a personalized antioxidant strategy is enrichment of mother milk or parenteral nutrition, according to the mode of nutrition needed by the newborn. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. The literature has abundantly reported a high oxidative stress in preterm infants, and that stress is associated with several pathological complications observed in this population. The fact that the specific marker to follow is linked to glutathione metabolism suggests a role for estrogens to prevent or at least diminish undesired responses to oxidative stress. Oxygen and parenteral nutrition—Two main oxidants—For extremely preterm infants: Conversation topics that lead to sex are launching platforms and work toward altering her mindset to match yours. However, further studies are needed to validate the benefit of such enrichment of milk formulas and possibly of human milk in order to improve antioxidant defense especially in preterm newborns. Using safer sex barriers like condoms and dental dams every time you have oral, anal, or vaginal sex helps protect you from STDs. Human milk is known to have antioxidant properties since oxidative stress markers are lower in infants fed with human milk compared to infant formulas [ 64 ]. Thus, a promising approach would be to enrich the milk with specific hexapeptides as those generated following mimicking digestion of human milk [ 65 ]. As such, estrogens are clearly associated with embryogenesis and intrauterine sexual development. Open in a separate window A. The obstacle in question is a logical one, but one that typically goes unnoticed by the untrained: Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, antioxidant enzymes, and exercise training. So, we must be careful in the fine interpretation of our observations. Determinants of oxidant stress in extremely low birth weight premature infants. Indeed, parenteral nutrition is contaminated with high levels of peroxides [ 43 , 51 , 52 ]. Glutathione metabolism is mainly an intracellular process.
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