However, there are no reference ranges for the elderly, despite the increasing use of point of care haemodynamics in general, and the USCOM in particular, in clinical practice. Results One hundred and sixty-five subjects It allows the measurement of haemodynamics in normal conscious subjects in a totally non-invasive manner, by measuring transvalvular flow across either the aortic or the pulmonary valve. The ageing trend began in developed countries and is now accelerating, not only in the first world, but also in developing countries. By definition, values beyond the normal reference range are regarded as abnormal clinically. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The major drivers of population ageing are increasing longevity and declining fertility . Subjects were divided into two groups. Body weight was measured to the nearest 0.
Ageing, Cardiac output, Doppler ultrasonography, Haemodynamics, Reference values, Transthoracic echocardiography 1. Equally, from a prognostic viewpoint, knowledge of the normal range is required to establish goals of therapy. Smith ,c Colin A. This provides a greater degree of measurement accuracy than the single waveform examination often employed in echocardiography. It is also unknown to what degree mild chronic disease, prevalent in the elderly population, affects resting haemodynamics. Mild chronic disease does not adversely affect resting haemodynamics in this population. Abstract Background Whilst there is a presumption in medicine that ageing adversely affects cardiovascular function, it is unknown if resting haemodynamics are compromised in the elderly, and if so, to what degree. This generated a minimum of 18 diagnostic quality ejection waveforms for each subject, nine for each valve. Subjects were divided into two groups. The Ultrasonic Cardiac Output Monitor USCOM is a non-invasive continuous wave Doppler ultrasound device derived from echocardiography, which measures haemodynamic parameters, accurately and reliably  ,  ,  ,  ,  , . Subjects with more severe chronic disease, corresponding to ASA 3 and above, were excluded. Introduction Population ageing is widespread around the world. This study was intended to answer several questions; whether age-related changes in haemodynamics occur; whether there was a difference between the haemodynamics of ageing subjects with and without mild chronic disease; whether there was a difference in haemodynamics as measured from either the aortic or the pulmonary valve; and to establish reference ranges for this population. Categorical variables were analyzed using the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. Each subject was requested to complete a health questionnaire to identify current and past health status, and current medication use. Graham ,a and Timothy H. The ageing trend began in developed countries and is now accelerating, not only in the first world, but also in developing countries. Standing height was measured barefoot to the nearest 0. It allows the measurement of haemodynamics in normal conscious subjects in a totally non-invasive manner, by measuring transvalvular flow across either the aortic or the pulmonary valve. General Significance Reference ranges were established for 21 haemodynamic parameters, as measured by USCOM, for an elderly Chinese population but not for non-Chinese populations. As with all quantitative tests, it is essential to have a reference range to compare any given reading against. Multiple comparisons of different age groups were performed using the Kruskal—Wallis test. Body weight was measured to the nearest 0. Group 1 included those with no known acute or chronic illness, and who had taken no medication in the previous four weeks, and would be classed as ASA 1 a normal healthy subject according to the classification of the American Society of Anesthesiology . The major drivers of population ageing are increasing longevity and declining fertility . Whilst ageing is known to affect the cardiovascular system both structurally and functionally  ,  , it is still unclear how, or if, ageing affects the resting haemodynamic profiles of the elderly.
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