Capable of long flying leaps, swinging from hand to hand suspended beneath branches, they are extraordinarily graceful to watch. For the foreseeable future, space crews will be relatively small in number. Foods may be presented in clean feeders, cut into small pieces and widely scattered, or left whole and unpeeled to extend feeding time Bloomsmith Exhibits generally maintain great apes in small groups in outdoor compounds provided with heated indoor shelters. Males are reported to show care of older offspring they might sleep with a juvenile and spend much time with it after new infants are born. Gestation periods are 7—8 months, and a single infant is generally born, although twins and even triplets have been observed in chimpanzees Greissmann Veterinary Care Daily health observations by experienced persons are critical to the physical well-being of apes. They have long memories and will recognize a favored or disfavored human after several years of separation.
Providing television sets for animals in laboratories and on exhibit has a certain appeal to humans, but benefits to the animals are dubious. Gestation periods are 7—8 months, and a single infant is generally born, although twins and even triplets have been observed in chimpanzees Greissmann Feeding time is a very important time of day, and feeding practices should be such as to encourage caregiver-animal communication. Although generally slow, orangutans can move very rapidly when alerted or during acts of aggression. All great apes construct sleeping nests in the wild and will use straw, cloth, and any other suitable materials to make nests in captivity. In general, any type of referential signals mentioned so far appear to be problematic to interpret spontaneously, that is without prior experience. Hominids lacking pronounced exposure to human communicative signals usually do not respond above chance level when confronted with pointing gestures, gaze or glance cues. Hybrids are readily produced in captivity, but geographic separation prevents gene flow between the two subspecies in the wild. Of special interest is its apparent comprehension of glancing as a referential cue, a capacity that has been thought to be absent in non-hominid primates and that is only rarely observed in great apes e. The idea of sex in space appears frequently in science fiction. The response of a human when being spat on might inadvertently serve to "reward" the ape and increase the likelihood of its spitting in the future. It is far preferable to train chimpanzees to present an arm or thigh against a wire-mesh cage wall Laule and others , A squeeze cage might be used as a last resort when there is no other safe way to deliver injectable medications. The great apes, in contrast, are extremely powerful animals with enormous hand strength. Older animals, too, benefit greatly by interactions with known caregivers Baker ; Fritz and Howell a; Laule and others , Chimpanzees in social groups will make use of separate areas. When adequately adapted, apes can tolerate temperature extremes, as can Old World monkeys, but shelter from direct sun, wind, rain, and temperature extremes should be available, as recommended in the Guide NRC and required by Animal Welfare Regulations 9 CFR Subchapter A. Some recognize chimpanzees and gorillas, the two knuckle-walking African apes, as members of the same genus, Pan, but others prefer to keep the gorilla Gorilla separate to highlight the greater relationship of chimpanzees Pan troglodytes to bonobos or pygmy chimpanzees Pan paniscus. Even when single housing is required, such as for biocontainment, much can be done to enrich the environment Brent and others ; Fritz and others ; Lambeth and Bloomsmith ; Nadler and others One curious observation in orangutans is that the presence of a fully adult male inhibits the development of cheek flanges and other secondary sex characteristics, but not fertility, in maturing males Kingsley ; Rodman All hylobatids are native to the rain forests of southeast Asian and Indonesia. Apes are susceptible to colds, and an infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae can be fatal. Life on Earth, and thus the reproductive and ontogenetic processes of all extant species and their ancestors, evolved under the constant influence of the Earth's 1 g gravitational field. As with New World and Old World monkeys, sexual maturity can precede full physical size, and pregnancies have been reported in exceptional females as young as 6 or 7 years old. Repeated tests of the same great ape species in OCTs often yield contradictory results, which likely reflect influences of rearing history and individual psychocognitive predispositions Byrnit, Copyright by the National Academy of Sciences. Development to full adult size can take 9—10 years in gorillas and even longer in orangutans.
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